So, What is Digital Enterprise Architecture?

Some time ago, I wrote an article about what is Digital Architecture. As a continuation of that article, also as apparently I am not very creative in finding new topics, I would like to focus on Digital Enterprise Architecture this time.

A Digital Enterprise Architecture is crucial, especially for large-size enterprises to stay nimble amid increasing competition. It is no secret that Amazon, or some other digital organisation, but most likely Amazon, is sooner or later will attempt taking over your industry.

The previous article stated that Digital Architecture is an architecture discipline applied to Solution Architecture. As would be expected, the same logic applies to Digital EA. Digital EA is essentially a modern approach to Enterprise Architecture which appreciates the impacts of digital transformation and thrives to keep the organisation stay ahead of the digital curve.

With that said, here are a few ideas for establishing a Digital Enterprise Architecture.

Disrupt Enterprise Architecture Principles

OK, disrupting might sound a bit ambitious. However, at a minimum, EA should revise architecture principles, policies and standards to enable the adoption of digital best practices and, more critically, emphasise customer centricity. Principles should not just focus on operational excellence as they would in a traditional enterprise architecture. They should instead cherish returning, happy customers. In the digital age, businesses can only survive if they pay the same or more attention to servicing their existing customers as they do to acquiring new customers.

In a Digital Enterprise Architecture, principles should be simple, practical and concise with a sound understanding of the digital landscape. Principles should emphasise customer and experience focus and inspire re-thinking. As a good example, Digital Principles provides a simple set of principles with digital themes such as Designing with the User and Being Data Driven.

Also In a Digital Enterprise Architecture, policies and standards appreciate the changes in the architecture patterns. For instance, if there is a policy against data replication, it may conflict in cases where persistent caching on the edge layers is required, or a fully-autonomous microservice is to be created. Keep in mind, even well-regarded museums are updating their principles to adapt to digital behaviours of today’s consumers.

Experience as Enterprise Architecture Asset

Key to digital is designing the right and optimum experiences for customers. In order to model such experiences, organisations today use tools like Customer Personas, Customer Lifecycle and Journey Maps. In a Digital EA, creation and re-use of these experience artifacts should be considered a norm. In fact, EA should provide an enterprise portfolio of experience assets where projects and solution can utilise to assure all segments of customers and lifecycle stages are considered.

These enterprise level catalogue of customer personas, lifecycle stages and high-level customer journey maps should then be used to derive other enterprise models where possible. As an example, a business capabilities maps should display critical capabilities that are necessary to implement these journeys and capabilities impacted by different customer personas and their lifecycle stages. This would allow help organisations create capabilities that connect with the customers throughout their lifecycle. Where experience artifacts cannot be directly used to derive other EA models, they should at least be associated. For example, an application catalogue linked to customer journeys would reveal critical applications for customer satisfaction.

Experimenting with Lightweight Governance

Experimentation is an essential capability, especially for large-size enterprises where innovation is not that great. Being able to test ideas before investing massively in them is the only way to keep up with smaller size startups or with large-scale organisations who have the resources and better at innovation. As Jeff Bezos correctly points out, ideas should only become expensive when they work.

Traditionally, Enterprise Architecture has the gatekeeping role in form of policies and standards to maintain a sustainable technology ecosystem. While governance is indispensable to eliminate unnecessary business and security risks, strict policies may stonewall experimentation or let ideas become just too expensive to try. Instead, a Digital Enterprise Architecture should promote experimentation through flexible governance models. Such models should allow business to test their ideas without having to invest in a fully-ratified solution until the idea proves itself to be profitable.

Thoughtful experimentation and investing in ideas is an essential capability, especially for large organisations, to avoid falling behind the competition. Although first-time-right might sound like a noble Enterprise Architecture outcome, you can’t pick the winners without investing in losers.

Cultivate a Design-Driven Architecture

Embracing a design-driven, innovation culture is crucial for today’s organisations. Focusing on operational excellence no longer cuts it. Although it is not easy to quantify the value of design, the Design Management Institute’s Design Value Index is a strong indicator to quantify the difference it makes. According to 2015’s Design Value Index, design-centric companies outperformed S&P 500 by 211% on returns over the 10 years between 2005 and 2015.

A design-driven architecture (I know, it sounds like “wood-driven carpentry”) would be the key enabler of a design-centric company. In an article from 2017, Gartner says 40% of enterprise architects will focus on the design-driven architecture where organisations understand the ecosystem and its actors, gaining insight into them and their behaviour and developing and evolving the services they need. In fact, Enterprise Architects, an Australian architecture consultancy re-branded itself as a Business Design firm 15 years after its foundation.

In these circumstances, Enterprise Architecture should promote design thinking within the organisation and in the architecture processes. It should also encourage, if not instruct, solution architects to spend time with the actual customers and participate in customer/user tests.

Here’s a bonus, inspirational interview conducted by the London Business School with Molly Dobson from Amazon on the culture of innovation.

Be Digital

Well, thank you Captain Obvious. But, seriously, you simply cannot have a Digital Enterprise Architecture if your EA practice, or any of your architecture practices for that matter, is not behaving digital.

EA teams should re-think and re-design their services with the focus on their customers. Are the organisation users getting the answers or guidance they require easily and timely? Is your Enterprise Architecture relevant, down-to-earth or disconnected? Are your artefacts easy to consume, or does it require architecture knowledge or special tooling? Do people have to chase EAs for critical decisions or are you proactive? Does your EA only speak about a far away future state which is not helping solve today’s problems? Or is it only an outdated documentation of the current state? Most critically, are you a gatekeeper or an enabler?

EA should also explore the opportunities to utilise technology to deliver better experiences. An example would be an AI engine running on the architecture repositories allowing users to intuitively query the architecture. Another example would be using big data and machine learning to maintain a current picture of the enterprise systems and the interactions between them.

Acting faster, bolder and smarter at the same time is an imperative for today’s businesses and it is exponentially harder for traditional organisations. Enterprise Architecture can have a role in achieving one or all of these goals. A Digital EA does not only focus on being smart and be the brakes when necessary; it is also the engine driving the change and helping the organisation take bolder steps.

How to successfully fail Digital Transformation

It is nearly impossible not coming across an article or a post about digital transformation on any given day. I can at least guarantee you have seen one today.

Considering the profundity of digital, the abundance of content on digital transformation must be expected. I think all industries, governments and even the society are still in the process of comprehending what digital truly means. Everyone who has seen that mm-hmm moment would have definitely developed second thoughts about the opportunities as well as the threads that come with digital. To me, it is somewhat akin to discovering plastics; the scientific wonder of the early 1900s, now an environmental curse. It is for that reason now we are talking about everything digital; digital economy, digital culture, digital government, digital thinking and so on.

As with every new technology evolution, there is also an abundance of content on how some large organisations tried digital transformation and failed spectacularly. Some even take the bar higher by predicting that 90% of digital transformation projects will fail. McKinsey also draws the attention to digital strategies organisations have today and signals that they are likely to fail if they don’t fully understand the digital economy and its demands.

One, who reads these downhearted articles and listens to failure stories, might for a second think there is a demand for failure in digital transformation. This article is inspired by that fictitious demand, but I trust you appreciate what is the actual point here.

Without further ado, here are my tips for successfully failing digital transformation.

1. It is all about mobile apps and web pages.

Chances are your company already has web and mobile applications. You might become “digital” by refacing those apps and adding some new cool features without actually thinking about the overall customer experience. If your company has no mobile apps, you should definitely take that as a golden opportunity and create as many mobile apps as you can. There may be functional overlaps, your customers may have to install 20 different apps and end up calling the customer centre but that’s OK. Digital is speed and you certainly don’t have time to understand the digital economy and its dynamics. Similarly, creating a digital mobile strategy is simply not agile.

Bonus: Ask IT guys to build a few APIs and organise a hackathon to rubber-stamp your digitality (yes, it’s totally a word).

2. Digitise the present.

Digital means automating existing processes and make them available through online channels. Your digital transformation is done once you replace your paper forms with web applications. Don’t make the mistake of mapping out customer journeys, or re-imagining your interactions and relationships with your customers and the rest of the digital players. Others may be busy with creating new digital business models or building new digital ecosystems, but don’t let them distract you, you can always let them disrupt you later.

3. New technology, traditional thinking.

Digital is the cloud, AI, machine learning, the blockchain, IOT and all the other technologies in Gartner’s hype cycle. Embed these technologies in your projects as much as you can. Use machine learning to generate random numbers, use chatbots to let your customers know of your call centre number. However new the technology is, stick with the existing, tried and tested processes. Being able to stand up a new cloud instance in a matter of minutes shouldn’t mean you can access those instances without going through weeks of governance and approval processes. It is also a good practice to ineffectively deliver such technologies through a tennis game between operational silos.

4. Do it once, and do it right. Don’t experiment.

Experimenting with new solutions and business models or prototyping ideas are unnecessary risks. You cannot foresee the feature and certainly, you do not have the luxury to test and fail. Think of how your peers or execs would see it if your experiment fails. Don’t forget, culture eats strategy for breakfast; don’t be a pancake. Follow the leading company in your industry, wait for them to be successful first before you copy what they did. If you happen to be the leader, just follow this digital transformation methodology until you no longer have to carry that burden.

5. It’s a transformation project, not a cultural shift.

And just to reemphasise all that has been discussed in previous paragraphs: treat digital transformation as a project, not as a cultural and business shift. You cannot kick off any transformation without a deadline and a defined ROI. No doubt you will hear voices in the industry saying digital transformation is a continuous effort, a mindset change for the whole organisation. Simply ignore those romantics and enjoy your half-baked digital transformation or analog stagnation.

This last item concludes my methodology for successfully failing digital transformation. On a serious note, the boundaries and the impact of digital are hard to define, and, digital transformation is easier said than done. IDC predicts digital transformation spending to reach $1.7 trillion worldwide in 2018, a 42% increase from 2017. Interestingly, that is the same amount of money globally spent on the military in 2017. Yet, IDC also predicts 75% of the organisations will fail to meet their digital transformation objectives – even without the help of my successfully failing digital transformation methodology. Nevertheless, digital transformation is bound to happen in one way or another. As Greg Verdino cleverly defined in his article, “digital transformation closes the gap between what digital customers already expect and what analog businesses actually deliver”.

The Superpowers of a Technology Architect

Every profession requires special skills which make an individual best or mediocre in that field. If you are a superhero, flying without engines, seeing behind the walls or firing laser beams off your eyes would certainly make you a favourite amongst the others.

Having spent close to two decades in technology architecture, I tried imagining the superpowers of a super architect. I focused on the character skills instead of domain, technology, or methodology knowledge and experience. I believe an architect who has these skills would pull off any complex design problems even they are new in the field or don’t have a shiny architecture badge.

None of these would be considered a superpower unless it comes with a flashy name. The outcome is not as striking as Negasonic Teenage Warhead, but I tried my best.

Neutral Perception

I’m not even sure if I have picked the right words to describe this superpower, but it surely points to a fundamental skill of a good architect. Getting rid of preconceptions and listening to comprehend but not to respond is an art of mind and harder than it sounds. This article explains the science of listening, and how our brains process what we hear. We tend to handpick bits and pieces from the entire conversation which correlate to our past learnings and experiences and what we already know. Once we think we got the gist of the talk, we quickly land on a judgment and rest of the communication seems unworthy of attention. We instantly shift our focus more on building up a response than listening what the other party has to say. Although this is a common human behaviour, it is unacceptable for a super architect.

A super architect is all ears and encourages the other party to elaborate further with questions. She is keen to learn and experience other perspectives and skilled in using empathy to precisely understand different viewpoints. Stephen Covey also draws attention to the importance of empathic listening in his book The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. If you are lazy like me to read the whole book, check out this article. It does not only point out to Covey’s empathic listening but also lists other critical communication skills.

In the end, for a conversation to become meaningful someone has to do the listening.

Random Contextual Jump

It is a great luxury for any architect to deal with only one aspect of a single solution at any given time. Usually, architects are inundated with various queries and unknowns from multiple solutions concurrently. More often than not, architects find themselves under abrupt spotlights where they are expected to explain intricate solution dependencies, comment on a compliance risk, improvise a detailed technical decision, provide a finger-in-the-air budget estimate, answer to security design questions and so on… Dealing with such sporadic variety of enquiries requires an exceptional comfort with ever-changing contexts as well as some level of Hyperthymesia.

A super architect maintains an ever-growing, multi-dimensional, non-volatile mind map of events and data in her surprisingly human-sized head. This mind map links every bit of information element to time, people, and locations where the super architect effortlessly hops between the nodes at any time of the day and under every condition. A super architect never stutters, never gives a half-baked answer, never forgets the rationale behind design decisions and never lets herself get into an “I should have said that” situation – even when she is being interrogated by a tableful of infuriating architects, aka Architecture Review Board.

Unfortunately, in reality, continuous context switching is a hideous form of multitasking. As this article elegantly points out it is also “the mother of all time sucks”. It doesn’t only kill your productivity but also lowers your IQ in some cases.

There are methods to deal with the challenges of continuous context switching such as Memory Palace or Mind Palace. If you are like me and find those methods complicated, and if you are not Sherlock Holmes, you can simply start by not trusting your memory and take notes in meetings, timely record rationale and decisions in your design documents.

Ethical Mindtrick

Powerful communication is key to designing an optimal solution architecture. With that said, an architect must also sharpen her communication skills with persuasiveness. Solution design process often involves convincing stakeholders why a particular design option is the best fit amongst others. Likewise, there are also times when an architect has to reason with stakeholders on why a seemingly lower cost, shorter time-to-market solution idea is not exactly the best option. A typical example of this is where business sees an opportunity in leveraging an existing design which is not aligned with the target architecture state of the organisation. Such quick-win, tactical solutions may result in long-term performance issues or technical debts which may not be immediately visible to business stakeholders. In a case like this, a super architect would simply wave her finger in the air while saying the following words with a soothing voice: “This is not the solution you’re looking for“.

Unfortunately as mind trick only exists in a galaxy far, far away, architects may choose to look into some down-to-earth techniques to make their communication clearer, logical and unquestionably convincing. Although these techniques are different in implementation, and a few like these may run your blood cold, in essence, they all require the architect to be the observer as well as the governor of the communication apart from being a participant of it. Architects can also shoot a glance at sales techniques as a super architect is also a master salesman of reasoning. Exploring techniques such as SPIN Selling can help architects to build up that observer perspective and have a greater command of their communications with other parties.

Hyper Cerebrum (or Extreme Learning)

One common statement used while describing the work of an architect is to suggest that she is the bridge between business, user experience, technology, operations and other stakeholders. A better way of looking at this is to consider the architect, not as the bridging role in between but as the intersection of all of these roles. That essentially means a super architect would design the best customer experience while creating the most profitable solution. Likewise, she would understand the business and even figure out how to fence off the competition. She would also appreciate the risk, compliance and legal impacts. At the same time, she would be the master of all the relevant technologies no matter how contemporary or antiquated they are. She would also know the ins and outs of DevOps, release and test management. She would even know Kung-Fu if necessary.

Vitruvius, the author of the first book on architecture theory takes the definition of the ideal architect (i.e. super architect) a step further in his book:

The ideal architect should be a man of letters, a skilful draftsman, a mathematician, familiar with historical studies, a diligent student of philosophy, acquainted with music, not ignorant of medicine, learned in the responses of jurisconsults, familiar with astronomy and astronomical calculations.

Sadly, humans have limits and no one is born with innate knowledge of everything. However, a good architect should be passionate about learning new things whether technical or business related. Just like an accomplished detective, she should develop her methods for getting to accurate information. She should enjoy chatting with people from all parts of the organisation and encourage them to talk about the issues they have and the details of their work. Also, she shouldn’t mind digging shared portals, wikis, document repositories to access to bits of information and connecting the dots. Additionally, she should follow industry news to keep up-to-date with the outside world.

Along with learning new things, she should also work on enhancing her learning skills. This article slightly touches on the science behind learning and provides some tips on learning faster. As the article points out, practice makes perfect and learning new skills helps the brain pick up further new skills more comfortably.

Crystal Articulation

We all heard of philosophical conundrums probing the relationship between perception and existence of things. There are a number of these but I believe the most commonly known is this one: “If a tree falls in a forest and no one is around to hear it, does it make a sound?“. Here’s a collection of answers to this question for the interested.

Here, I want to pose my own philosophical conundrum:

If there is a great architectural design and yet it is articulated very badly, is it a great design?

Powerful articulation is an essential skill of an architect. It goes beyond accurately expressing the facts visually or verbally. It is about using correct articulation techniques to ensure the message is delivered to the right direction with the right context. Here’s a great story about Harry Beck and his map of London Tube. Beck created his map back in 1933 and it became the standard for all metro maps. Beck’s map was not interested in depicting railways, stations and landscape accurately but to convey information to its consumers in a manner that is useful to them.

Just like Beck, a super architect creates the optimum design artefacts and chooses the optimum words, creates architectural seer stones, and delivers the rationale and impact of her designs exactly from the audiences’ viewpoints. Anyone interacting with the super architect – or with the artefacts she has created – would leave with zero questions lingering in their minds.

When it comes to creating diagrams, there are lots of best practices out in the wild such as Geert Bellekens’ 5 rules for better diagrams. However, I believe the magical ingredient is empathy and focus on how the information can be best conveyed to its consumer. For instance, in some cases, it may be better re-drawing a diagram on a whiteboard while telling the story of the solution, instead of simply presenting an existing diagram.

Atlassian Endurance

Endurance doesn’t sound like a flashy superpower but it is a complementary factor of a superhero character – in some cases making the mere immortals get closer to superheroes.

Architects fed on uncertainty and their job essentially is to facilitate change in a good direction. Change is not always easy and as Dan Heath, co-author of a couple of books on change, points out in this short video, it may even get you exhausted to a point you don’t really care anymore. Architects tell people that things are going to change, and they may even have to step into new, unknown territories. In many cases, people will be reluctant to change or won’t fully agree with the direction architect is pointing at. Even architect herself might have inner debates on how to get there. She would question whether she should compromise on the architectural principles to deliver the business value earlier, or whether she should say no to the business sponsors to avoid technical debts. Either way getting from an idea to a delivery-ready design is a pretty exhausting task and architects should find ways to keep up their willpower.

One easy method is simply to accept the fact that non-architectural tasks of chasing and convincing people, having endless discussions and developing business cases are also part of an architect’s job. If it helps, architects can imagine themselves as management consultants sent to a client to develop business. As a dexterous consultant wouldn’t leave the client without a meaningful outcome both for the client and herself, an architect should also display the same endurance in order to get to the best solution for the organisation.

This wraps up my list of superpowers a super architect must have. Anything missing or doesn’t make sense? Let me know in the comments.

What is Digital Architecture anyway?

Best way to secure funding for your project is to put the word Digital somewhere into the name of it.

Those were the words I heard from a IT executive pretty much summarising the way IT industry reacts to Digital today. We work in digital transformation projects which would be just called transformation projects a few years ago.

Continue reading What is Digital Architecture anyway?

Digital Thinking

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Digital is big. It is not only big in the size of the hype it created but also big in its breadth and impact. It has become the codename for anything mixing the latest in technology with dazzling customer experience. Wikipedia’s definition of digital transformation refers to it as the next chapter in technology literacy where technology amalgamates with creativity and innovation.
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